Category Archives: Behaviour Exceptionality

ADHD-related videos

Russell Barkley – ADD, ODD, emotional impulsiveness, and relationships  Dr. Russell Barkley has many clips on youtube about ADHD and discusses medication, traits ADHD and link between ADHD and other disorders such as ODD.

Dr. David Templin – Adult ADHD  Canadian (Toronto-based) psychologist provides psychological services for people with ADHD including initial assessments, diagnosis and cognitive behaviour therapy.  His videos speak about the traits of ADHD in adults.

Rick Green’s Totally ADD.com Canadian actor, producer and ADDer.

From Dr. Charles Parker – a great discussion on Adderall, a drug commonly used for ADHD.

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Conduct Disorder

This mental disorder may be diagnosed when a child seriously misbehaves with aggressive or nonaggressive behaviors against people, animals or property that may be characterized as belligerent, destructive, threatening, physically cruel, deceitful, disobedient, or dishonest. This may include stealing, intentional injury, and forced sexual activity.

Diagnostic criteria for Conduct Disorder

A. A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated, as manifested by the presence of three (or more) of the following criteria in the past 12 months, with at least one criterion present in the past 6 months:

Aggression to people and animals

(1) often bullies, threatens, or intimidates others (2) often initiates physical fights (3) has used a weapon that can cause serious physical harm to others (e.g., abat, brick, broken bottle, knife, gun) (4) has been physically cruel to people (5) has been physically cruel to animals (6) has stolen while confronting a victim (e.g., mugging, purse snatching, extortion, armed robbery) (7) has forced someone into sexual activity

Destruction of property

(8) has deliberately engaged in fire setting with the intention of causing serious damage (9) has deliberately destroyed others’ property (other than by fire setting)

Deceitfulness or theft

(10) has broken into someone else’s house, building, or car (11) often lies to obtain goods or favors or to avoid obligations (i.e., “cons” others) (12) has stolen items of nontrivial value without confronting a victim (e.g., shoplifting, but without breaking and entering; forgery)

Serious violations of rules

(13) often stays out at night despite parental prohibitions, beginning before age 13 years (14) has run away from home overnight at least twice while living in parental or parental surrogate home (or once without returning for a lengthy period) (15) is often truant from school, beginning before age 13 years

B. The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.

C. If the individual is age 18 years or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial Personality Disorder.

Specify type based on age at onset:

Childhood-Onset Type: onset of at least one criterion characteristic of Conduct Disorder prior to age 10 years

Adolescent-Onset Type: absence of any criteria characteristic of Conduct Disorder prior to age 10 years

Specify severity:

Mild: few if any conduct problems in excess of those required to make the diagnosis and conduct problems cause only minor harm to others

Moderate: number of conduct problems and effect on others intermediate between “mild” and “severe”

Severe: many conduct problems in excess of those required to make the diagnosis or conduct problems cause considerable harm to others

Reprinted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Copyright 2000 American Psychiatric Association

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Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

If a child’s problem behaviors do not meet the criteria for Conduct Disorder, but involve a pattern of defiant, angry, antagonistic, hostile, irritable, or vindictive behaviour this mental disorder of childhood may be diagnosed. These children may blame others for their problems.

Diagnostic criteria for Oppositional Defiant Disorder

A. A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months, during which four (or more) of the following are present:

(1) often loses temper
(2) often argues with adults
(3) often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults’ requests or rules
(4) often deliberately annoys people
(5) often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior
(6) is often touchy or easily annoyed by others
(7) is often angry and resentful
(8) is often spiteful or vindictive
Note: Consider a criterion met only if the behavior occurs more frequently than is typically observed in individuals of comparable age and developmental level.

B. The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.

C. The behaviors do not occur exclusively during the course of a Psychotic or Mood Disorder.

D. Criteria are not met for Conduct Disorder, and, if the individual is age 18 years or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial Personality Disorder.

Reprinted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Copyright 2000 American Psychiatric Association

From http://behavenet.com/oppositional-defiant-disorder

 

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DSM-IV Criteria for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

The DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition) contains the Diagnostic Criteria for the most common mental disorders including: description, diagnosis, treatment, and research findings. Below is the Diagnostic Criteria for diagnosing Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder:

A. Either (1) or (2)

1) Six or more of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with the developmental level:

Inattention

  1. often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities
  2. often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
  3. often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
  4. often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behaviour or failure of comprehension)
  5. often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
  6. often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework)
  7. often loses things necessary for tasks or activities at school or at home (e.g. toys, pencils, books, assignments)
  8. is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
  9. is often forgetful in daily activities

2) Six or more of the following symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with the developmental level:

Hyperactivity

  1. often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
  2. often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected
  3. often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness)
  4. often  has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly
  5. often talks excessively
  6. is often ‘on the go’ or often acts as if ‘driven by a motor’

Impulsivity

  1. often  has difficulty awaiting turn in games or group situations
  2. often  blurts out answers to questions before they have been completed
  3. often interrupts or intrudes on others, e.g. butts into other children’s games

B. Some hyperactivity – impulsive or inattentive symptoms that cause impairment were present before the age of 7 years.

C. Some impairment from the symptoms is present in more than two or more settings (e.g. at school or work or at home).

D. There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.

E. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Schizophrenia, or other Psychotic Disorder, and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g. Mood Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, Dissociative Disorder, or a Personality Disorder).

Based on these criteria, three types of ADHD are identified:

  1. ADHD, Combined Type: if both criteria 1A and 1B are met for the past 6 months
  2. ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type: if criterion 1A is met but criterion 1B is not met for      the past six months
  3. ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: if Criterion 1B is met but Criterion 1A is not      met for the past six months.

The above information has been printed from the American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

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Behaviour Exceptionalities

Behavioural exceptionalities are defined by the Ministry of Education as follows:

Behaviour: A learning disorder characterized by specific behaviour problems over such a period of time, and to such a marked degree, and of such a nature, as to adversely affect educational performance, and that may be accompanied by one or more of the following:

a) an inability to build or to maintain interpersonal relationships;

b) excessive fears or anxieties;

c) a tendency to compulsive reaction;

d) an inability to learn that cannot be traced

(In short, it depends, but you’ll know it when you see it 😉

Websites and Organizations for Behaviour Exceptionalities:

Centre for ADHD Awareness http://www.caddac.ca/

Sick Kids ADHD Clinic http://www.sickkids.ca/HealthInFocus/ADHD/index.html

Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorder  www.chadd.org

Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada http://tourette.ca/

Shaping a Culture of Respect in Our Schools: Promoting Safe and Healthy Relationships (2008)

http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/teachers/RespectCulture.pdf

Information about the Ministry’s Safe Schools strategy and related resources

http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/teachers/safeschools/html

 Positive Behaviour Support Programs:

Office of Special Education Programs, US Department of Education. Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports http://www.pbis.org/

Bucket Fillers (School Wide Positive Behaviour Support) http://www.bucketfillers101.com/

Books on Behaviour Exceptionalities & how to deal with them

Brewer, R. & Mueller, T (2010)  Strategies at Hand: quick and handy positive behaviour support strategies, Autism Asperger Publishing Company, Council for Exceptional Children, USA

Buron, K.D. (2006) When My Worries Get Too Big: a relaxation book for children who live with Anxiety, Autism Asperger Publishing Company, Council for Exceptional Children, USA

Dornbush, M. & Pruitt, S. (1995) Teaching the Tiger: a handbook for individuals involved in the education of students with Attention Deficit Disorders, Tourette Syndrome or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Hope Press, CA USA This is an oldie but a CLASSIC for understanding ADHD

Kearney, K. (2007)  Understanding Applied Behaviour Analysis: an Introduction to ABA for Parents, Teachers, and other Professionals, Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd, London

Alberta Education – Government of Alberta (2006) Focusing on Success: Teaching Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. http://education.alberta.ca/media/511987/focus.pdf

Jones, F. (2000)  Tools for Teaching: discipline, instruction and motivation, Fredric Jones and Associates Publishing, USA

Lavoie, R. (2008) The Motivation Breakthrough: secrets to turning on the tuned-out child, DVD PBS Video

Packer, L. & Pruitt, S. (2010)  Challenging Kids, Challenged Teachers: Teaching students with Tourette’s, Bipolar Disorder, Executive Dysfunction, OCD, ADHD and more, Woodbine House Publishing, USA

Wong, H.K. (2004) The First Days of School: how to be an effective teacher. Ingram Book Company, USA

Finally….

The Special Education Companion, 2002 (do you sense a theme here?)

Possibly the BEST and most under-used document in Special Education!  This document lists countless ways to help students under each Exceptionality Category.  If you look at ‘Behaviour Exceptionality’ you have 10 pages of characterisitics of these  students, issues, general teaching and learning strategies, program ideas, subject-specific strategies (reading, spelling, mathematics) and assessment strategies!

Do NOT write an IEP without reading this document! Parents and Teachers should use this resource to determine appropriate accommodations, modifications, and strategies for the classroom.  Parents, please bring this to your teacher meetings to advocate for your child!

Please give comments with your favourite websites for people with  Behaviour Exceptionalities – share the wealth!

Remember: This is a PERSONAL blog, not an official Ministry of Education website. This is a forum for sharing.

Please add comments and your favourite resources (and let me know if there are any dead links!) Thank you!

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – ADHD and ADD

The Ontario Ministry of Education defines a “Behaviour” Exceptionality as:

A learning disorder characterized by specific behaviour problems over such a period of time, and to such a marked degree, and of such a nature, as to adversely affect educational performance, and that may be accompanied by one or more of the following:

a) an inability to build or to maintain interpersonal relationships;

b) excessive fears or anxieties;

c) a tendency to compulsive reaction;

d) an inability to learn that cannot be traced to intellectual, sensory, or other health factors, or any combination thereof.

Special Education: a Guide for Educators (2002)

Click here for a link to the DSM-IV Criteria for ADHD

(This may be *somewhat* more accurate)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – ADHD and ADD

I will say that Alberta is further ahead than Ontario in recognising and supporting students with ADHD.  So let’s start with Alberta!

Alberta Education – Government of Alberta (2006) Focusing on Success: Teaching Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
You want proof about the ADHD situation in Ontario?  Check it out! 3 provinces get failing grades on ADHD and Ontario is one of them! http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/story/2010/10/27/adhd-schools.html
Research Monograph # 3 The Educational Implications of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Ontario Ministry of Education)
CADDAC’s  Fairness in Education Campaign calls on governments to recognize that students with ADHD have legitimate special learning needs and need appropriate supports to overcome their challenges in becoming academically successful http://www.caddac.ca/cms/page.php?214
More on that here…
Canadian Resources for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder:

Centre for ADHD Awareness, Canada
Probably the one of the BEST general ADHD websites out there – for parents, educators, medical professionals and adults with ADHD.  Gender differences too.  Excellent information on medication, support and different stages of life – childhood, adolescence, postsecondary and adulthood.  This is my ‘go to’ website. http://www.caddac.ca/cms/page.php?2
Here is their list of Canadian ADHD links – be sure to check them out
The Canadian Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Resource Alliance
Again, excellent information for parents, educators, doctors, adults with ADHD, children and adolescents.  The children’s section is written in kid-friendly language. http://www.caddra.ca/cms4/
Sick Kids ADHD Clinic
From the Hospital for Sick Children – Information for Parents, kids and Educators about ADHD signs, symptoms, subtypes and school.  Information about gender differences, diagnosis and treatment as well.
Check out Rick Green’s Totally ADD website- tonnes of videos, etc..
In case you missed it before, check out:

The Special Education Companion, 2002

Possibly the BEST and most under-used document in Special Education!  This document lists countless ways to help students under each Exceptionality Category.  If you look at ‘Behaviour’ you have 10 pages of characterisitics of students with Behaviour Exceptionalities, issues, general teaching and learning strategies, program ideas, subject-specific strategies (reading, spelling, mathematics) and assessment strategies!

Do NOT write an IEP without reading this document! Parents and Teachers should use this resource to determine appropriate accommodations, modifications, and strategies for the classroom.  Parents, please bring this to your teacher meetings to advocate for your child!

http://www.ocup.org/resources/documents/companions/speced2002.pdf

Note: This is a PERSONAL blog, not an official Ministry of Education website. This is a forum for sharing.

Please add comments and your favourite resources (and let me know if there are any dead links!) Thank you!

Leave a comment

Filed under Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - ADHD and ADD, Behaviour Exceptionality, How to Teach Students with Special Needs