Monthly Archives: July 2012

SMART goals for IEPS

SMART Goals

Annual Goals for IEPs should be written using the SMART goal format.

 

SMART

S – Specific

M – Measurable

A – Attainable

R – Realistic / Relevant

T – Time Limited

 

Be very specific about the action. For instance: Which of the following are NOT specific?:

raise his/her hand for attention,

 -use a classroom voice,

– read the pre-primer Dolch Words,

– complete homework,

– keep hands and feet to him/herself,

–  point to 1 want, or 1 need using augmentative symbols.

S – Specific

Clearly describe the behaviour or academic goal.  i.e. will read at SRA level X by the end of semester.  Will use fidgit toys during circle time.

M – Measurable

Then decide what determines the success of the goal. For instance:

–          how many consecutive minutes will the child remain on task? How many gym periods?

–          How fluently will the child read the words – without hesitation and prompting?

–          What percentage of accuracy? How often?

T – Time limited

Then you need to provide a time frame or location/context for the goal. For instance:

–          during silent reading time, while in the gym,

–           at recess time, by the end of 2nd term,

–          point to 1 picture symbol when something is needed.

Some Examples of Not-So SMART Goals

A vague, broad or general goal is unacceptable in the IEP. Goals that state will improve reading ability, will improve his/her behaviour, will do better in math should be stated much more specifically with reading levels or benchmarks, or frequency or level of improvement to attain and a time frame for when the improvement will occur.

Using “will improve his/her behaviour ‘is also not specific. Although you may want behaviour improved, which specific behaviours are targeted first along with when and how are a critical part of the goal.

You need to clearly define the behaviour concerns to start to identify ways to improve it.

SMART tips

Keep it positive – i.e. keep hands on fidget toy in hallways NOT do not knock on classroom doors in hall

Include any curricular modifications. If the curriculum states that the goal is to count to 50 and you state count to 10, this is a modification.

Include any curricular accommodations. This will include things like: scribing, a quite setting to take tests, assistive technology etc.

Provide any support staff that will be involved in the IEP

Indicate materials and or resources to be used

Most importantly, make sure the IEP is based on priorities for the student.

IEP Samples

http://www.ontariodirectors.ca/IEP-PEI/en.html

ACTIVITY A

1.            Explore the sample IEPs and discuss.  Can you identify the SMART goals?  Create a student profile based on one IEP.

Remember – SMART

  • S – Specific
  • M – Measurable
  • A – Attainable
  • R – Realistic / Relevant
  • T – Time Limited

 

2.            In your groups role play what 5 minutes of this student’s day would look like in their classroom.

Student Profile

Include:

  • Name, age, grade, strengths, needs
  • Key areas of academic focus/need
  • Brief biographic sketch (who is this person really?)

Transition Plan

Note: IEPs for students with ASD must have a transition plan.  This is part of PPM 140

Also, for all Exceptional students (except Gifted) a transition plan is required for transition from Elementary to Secondary and from Secondary to Post-Secondary (work, community resources, education, apprenticeships etc…)

 

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ADHD-related videos

Russell Barkley – ADD, ODD, emotional impulsiveness, and relationships  Dr. Russell Barkley has many clips on youtube about ADHD and discusses medication, traits ADHD and link between ADHD and other disorders such as ODD.

Dr. David Templin – Adult ADHD  Canadian (Toronto-based) psychologist provides psychological services for people with ADHD including initial assessments, diagnosis and cognitive behaviour therapy.  His videos speak about the traits of ADHD in adults.

Rick Green’s Totally ADD.com Canadian actor, producer and ADDer.

From Dr. Charles Parker – a great discussion on Adderall, a drug commonly used for ADHD.

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Conduct Disorder

This mental disorder may be diagnosed when a child seriously misbehaves with aggressive or nonaggressive behaviors against people, animals or property that may be characterized as belligerent, destructive, threatening, physically cruel, deceitful, disobedient, or dishonest. This may include stealing, intentional injury, and forced sexual activity.

Diagnostic criteria for Conduct Disorder

A. A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated, as manifested by the presence of three (or more) of the following criteria in the past 12 months, with at least one criterion present in the past 6 months:

Aggression to people and animals

(1) often bullies, threatens, or intimidates others (2) often initiates physical fights (3) has used a weapon that can cause serious physical harm to others (e.g., abat, brick, broken bottle, knife, gun) (4) has been physically cruel to people (5) has been physically cruel to animals (6) has stolen while confronting a victim (e.g., mugging, purse snatching, extortion, armed robbery) (7) has forced someone into sexual activity

Destruction of property

(8) has deliberately engaged in fire setting with the intention of causing serious damage (9) has deliberately destroyed others’ property (other than by fire setting)

Deceitfulness or theft

(10) has broken into someone else’s house, building, or car (11) often lies to obtain goods or favors or to avoid obligations (i.e., “cons” others) (12) has stolen items of nontrivial value without confronting a victim (e.g., shoplifting, but without breaking and entering; forgery)

Serious violations of rules

(13) often stays out at night despite parental prohibitions, beginning before age 13 years (14) has run away from home overnight at least twice while living in parental or parental surrogate home (or once without returning for a lengthy period) (15) is often truant from school, beginning before age 13 years

B. The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.

C. If the individual is age 18 years or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial Personality Disorder.

Specify type based on age at onset:

Childhood-Onset Type: onset of at least one criterion characteristic of Conduct Disorder prior to age 10 years

Adolescent-Onset Type: absence of any criteria characteristic of Conduct Disorder prior to age 10 years

Specify severity:

Mild: few if any conduct problems in excess of those required to make the diagnosis and conduct problems cause only minor harm to others

Moderate: number of conduct problems and effect on others intermediate between “mild” and “severe”

Severe: many conduct problems in excess of those required to make the diagnosis or conduct problems cause considerable harm to others

Reprinted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Copyright 2000 American Psychiatric Association

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Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

If a child’s problem behaviors do not meet the criteria for Conduct Disorder, but involve a pattern of defiant, angry, antagonistic, hostile, irritable, or vindictive behaviour this mental disorder of childhood may be diagnosed. These children may blame others for their problems.

Diagnostic criteria for Oppositional Defiant Disorder

A. A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months, during which four (or more) of the following are present:

(1) often loses temper
(2) often argues with adults
(3) often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults’ requests or rules
(4) often deliberately annoys people
(5) often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior
(6) is often touchy or easily annoyed by others
(7) is often angry and resentful
(8) is often spiteful or vindictive
Note: Consider a criterion met only if the behavior occurs more frequently than is typically observed in individuals of comparable age and developmental level.

B. The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.

C. The behaviors do not occur exclusively during the course of a Psychotic or Mood Disorder.

D. Criteria are not met for Conduct Disorder, and, if the individual is age 18 years or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial Personality Disorder.

Reprinted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Copyright 2000 American Psychiatric Association

From http://behavenet.com/oppositional-defiant-disorder

 

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DSM-IV Criteria for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

The DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition) contains the Diagnostic Criteria for the most common mental disorders including: description, diagnosis, treatment, and research findings. Below is the Diagnostic Criteria for diagnosing Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder:

A. Either (1) or (2)

1) Six or more of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with the developmental level:

Inattention

  1. often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities
  2. often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
  3. often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
  4. often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behaviour or failure of comprehension)
  5. often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
  6. often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework)
  7. often loses things necessary for tasks or activities at school or at home (e.g. toys, pencils, books, assignments)
  8. is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
  9. is often forgetful in daily activities

2) Six or more of the following symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with the developmental level:

Hyperactivity

  1. often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
  2. often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected
  3. often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness)
  4. often  has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly
  5. often talks excessively
  6. is often ‘on the go’ or often acts as if ‘driven by a motor’

Impulsivity

  1. often  has difficulty awaiting turn in games or group situations
  2. often  blurts out answers to questions before they have been completed
  3. often interrupts or intrudes on others, e.g. butts into other children’s games

B. Some hyperactivity – impulsive or inattentive symptoms that cause impairment were present before the age of 7 years.

C. Some impairment from the symptoms is present in more than two or more settings (e.g. at school or work or at home).

D. There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.

E. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Schizophrenia, or other Psychotic Disorder, and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g. Mood Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, Dissociative Disorder, or a Personality Disorder).

Based on these criteria, three types of ADHD are identified:

  1. ADHD, Combined Type: if both criteria 1A and 1B are met for the past 6 months
  2. ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type: if criterion 1A is met but criterion 1B is not met for      the past six months
  3. ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: if Criterion 1B is met but Criterion 1A is not      met for the past six months.

The above information has been printed from the American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

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